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The national rural water supply and environmental sanitation programme in India : second progress report (1 December 1996 to 31 December 1997)

The report contains the results of the 1997 assessment. It gives background information on the objectives and achievements in rural water supply and sanitation and UNICEF's role in the programme. Then it presents a detailed evaluation of projects carried out under the programme. In general, the report finds that in 1997 project implementation proceeded without major interruptions. While some project components such as CDD-WATSAN, school sanitation, rural sanitary marts and community based handpump maintenance have made good progress, two components, environmental protection and integrated fluorosis control, have not been as successful.

The CDD-WATSAN (Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Water and Sanitation) component accounts for 33% of project expenditure. Its achievements include:

Sanitation / Type Achieved 11/96 - 12/97
household toilets built 10,497
institutional toilets built (at schools 469
production centres set up 19
Rural Sanitary Markets set up 21
garbage disposal introduced (villages) 308
drainage improved (villages) 466

The goal of one improved source of water per 150 persons has been achieved in most areas. Community involvement in site selection, a lower ratio of users per spot and active promotion of handpumps are increasing the proportion of the population using handpumps as the source of choice for domestic supplies. Community based handpump maintenance is promoted.

Community organisation, social mobilisation and capacity building at all levels, are key aspects of the CDD-WATSAN strategy.
Water supply Participants (M/F) 11/96 - 12/97
PHED/Panchayat functionaries 544
handpump caretakers 547 / 3,742
handpump mechanics 441 / 298
Sanitation
trainers 236
district-level functionaries 84
block-level functionaries 248
masons 304 / 203
orientation of health staff 542
village level motivators 509
village WatSan Committee members 3,137 / 1,373
panchayat members 885
media personnel 111

Mothers' meetings continue to be a very good forum for education on the proper management of infant and child diarrhoea.

Rural sanitary mart (RSM) is a commercial enterprise with a social objective, but no visible subsidy. It accounts for about 10% of project expenditure. Nearly 700 RMSs are in operation throughout the country. The RSM is now an important part of GOI's Central Rural Sanitation Programme guidelines. The RSM programme component is implemented in three states, 86 potential market towns have been identified, 51 socio-economic analyses completed and 61 potential agencies identified. Orientation / training has been provided to resp. 113 and 131 RSM managers. 785 RSM masons and 109 production centres masons have been trained as well as 1,880 motivators.
70 RSMs have been set up, 70 have been provided with working capital and 19 with marketing / managerial support. 13,736 pans and traps have been sold in total RMSs. 33 Production Centres have been set up, 33 were provided with working capital.

The rainwater harvesting and empowerment of women component accounts for 3% of project expenditure. Training and hygiene education have received attention.

Hygiene education / Type Participants M/F
villagers reached with messages 297 / 282
village-level motivators trained 16 / 38
district/block level officials trained 48
NGO group trained 2

The Community-based handpump maintenance component accounts for about 7% of project expenditure. It includes community organisation, capacity building and social mobilisation, mostly done by local NGOs, with support from the water supply agency.
Hygiene education / Type Participants (M/F) 11/96-12/97
villagers participating in training 220 / 261
handpump mechanics/caretakers trained 86 / 132
media (print, electronic, folk) personnel 0
NGO groups trained 12

The school sanitation component accounts for 12% of project expenditure. It includes community organisation, capacity building and social mobilisation.

Sanitation / hygiene education
Type Participants (M/F0 11/96-12/97
teachers 1,421 / 499
anganwadi workers 5 / 1,237
district/block officials 860 / 4,112
NGO groups 3

Physical WatSan facilities
Type Achieved 11/96 - 12/97
latrines for 656 schools 467
latrines for anganwadis 30
urinals for 179 schools 442
drainage around water supply points 130
school garbage disposal 1,150
India Mark III pumps (new installations) 154
TARA handpumps 98
drinking water storage tanks 530

The water supply sustainability - borewell rejuvenation component accounts for 8% of project expenditure. It includes capacity building of government personnel and monitoring.

The environmental protection / water resource management component accounts for 4% of the project expenditure. It includes training.

The integrated fluorosis control component accounts for 3% of the project expenditure. It includes training and social mobilisation. No improvements in sanitation have been achieved during 1997.

The management information systems for WatSan component accounts for 7% of the project expenditure. It includes training.

The R&D on low cost sanitation component accounts for 1 % of the project expenditure.

The report also looks at project implementation, management, monitoring and review. In February 1997, GON conducted a mid-term review of the programme and this report contains a point-by-point review of recommendations made to UNICEF at that time. Although the project is scheduled to come to an end on 30 April 1998, since funds are still available, it will continue well into 1998.

TitleThe national rural water supply and environmental sanitation programme in India : second progress report (1 December 1996 to 31 December 1997)
Publication TypeMiscellaneous
Year of Publication1998
AuthorsUNICEF -New Delhi, IN, Netherlands. Ministry of Foreign Affairs -NL. DGIS, Directorate General for Development Cooperation
Paginationii, 38 p. : maps, photogr., tab.
Date Published1998-04-01
PublisherUNICEF
Place PublishedNew Delhi, India
Keywordsboreholes, community participation, diarrhoeal diseases, evaluation, financing, hand pumps, india, integrated fluorosis control project -ifcp (india), maintenance, management information systems, national rural water supply and environmental sanitation programme (india), programmes, rainwater harvesting, rural areas, safe water supply, sanitation, schools, sdiasi, sdiman, water resources management, women
Abstract

The report contains the results of the 1997 assessment. It gives background information on the objectives and achievements in rural water supply and sanitation and UNICEF's role in the programme. Then it presents a detailed evaluation of projects carried out under the programme. In general, the report finds that in 1997 project implementation proceeded without major interruptions. While some project components such as CDD-WATSAN, school sanitation, rural sanitary marts and community based handpump maintenance have made good progress, two components, environmental protection and integrated fluorosis control, have not been as successful.

The CDD-WATSAN (Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Water and Sanitation) component accounts for 33% of project expenditure. Its achievements include:

Sanitation / Type Achieved 11/96 - 12/97
household toilets built 10,497
institutional toilets built (at schools 469
production centres set up 19
Rural Sanitary Markets set up 21
garbage disposal introduced (villages) 308
drainage improved (villages) 466

The goal of one improved source of water per 150 persons has been achieved in most areas. Community involvement in site selection, a lower ratio of users per spot and active promotion of handpumps are increasing the proportion of the population using handpumps as the source of choice for domestic supplies. Community based handpump maintenance is promoted.

Community organisation, social mobilisation and capacity building at all levels, are key aspects of the CDD-WATSAN strategy.
Water supply Participants (M/F) 11/96 - 12/97
PHED/Panchayat functionaries 544
handpump caretakers 547 / 3,742
handpump mechanics 441 / 298
Sanitation
trainers 236
district-level functionaries 84
block-level functionaries 248
masons 304 / 203
orientation of health staff 542
village level motivators 509
village WatSan Committee members 3,137 / 1,373
panchayat members 885
media personnel 111

Mothers' meetings continue to be a very good forum for education on the proper management of infant and child diarrhoea.

Rural sanitary mart (RSM) is a commercial enterprise with a social objective, but no visible subsidy. It accounts for about 10% of project expenditure. Nearly 700 RMSs are in operation throughout the country. The RSM is now an important part of GOI's Central Rural Sanitation Programme guidelines. The RSM programme component is implemented in three states, 86 potential market towns have been identified, 51 socio-economic analyses completed and 61 potential agencies identified. Orientation / training has been provided to resp. 113 and 131 RSM managers. 785 RSM masons and 109 production centres masons have been trained as well as 1,880 motivators.
70 RSMs have been set up, 70 have been provided with working capital and 19 with marketing / managerial support. 13,736 pans and traps have been sold in total RMSs. 33 Production Centres have been set up, 33 were provided with working capital.

The rainwater harvesting and empowerment of women component accounts for 3% of project expenditure. Training and hygiene education have received attention.

Hygiene education / Type Participants M/F
villagers reached with messages 297 / 282
village-level motivators trained 16 / 38
district/block level officials trained 48
NGO group trained 2

The Community-based handpump maintenance component accounts for about 7% of project expenditure. It includes community organisation, capacity building and social mobilisation, mostly done by local NGOs, with support from the water supply agency.
Hygiene education / Type Participants (M/F) 11/96-12/97
villagers participating in training 220 / 261
handpump mechanics/caretakers trained 86 / 132
media (print, electronic, folk) personnel 0
NGO groups trained 12

The school sanitation component accounts for 12% of project expenditure. It includes community organisation, capacity building and social mobilisation.

Sanitation / hygiene education
Type Participants (M/F0 11/96-12/97
teachers 1,421 / 499
anganwadi workers 5 / 1,237
district/block officials 860 / 4,112
NGO groups 3

Physical WatSan facilities
Type Achieved 11/96 - 12/97
latrines for 656 schools 467
latrines for anganwadis 30
urinals for 179 schools 442
drainage around water supply points 130
school garbage disposal 1,150
India Mark III pumps (new installations) 154
TARA handpumps 98
drinking water storage tanks 530

The water supply sustainability - borewell rejuvenation component accounts for 8% of project expenditure. It includes capacity building of government personnel and monitoring.

The environmental protection / water resource management component accounts for 4% of the project expenditure. It includes training.

The integrated fluorosis control component accounts for 3% of the project expenditure. It includes training and social mobilisation. No improvements in sanitation have been achieved during 1997.

The management information systems for WatSan component accounts for 7% of the project expenditure. It includes training.

The R&D on low cost sanitation component accounts for 1 % of the project expenditure.

The report also looks at project implementation, management, monitoring and review. In February 1997, GON conducted a mid-term review of the programme and this report contains a point-by-point review of recommendations made to UNICEF at that time. Although the project is scheduled to come to an end on 30 April 1998, since funds are still available, it will continue well into 1998.

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