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Evaluation of microbial health risks associated with the reuse of source-separated human urine

This thesis examines the health risks of reusing urine from urine-separating (or urine-diverting) toilets both in developed countries (with a focus on Sweden) and in developing countries. Since the risk for transmission of disease when handling and reusing the urine is largely dependent on cross-contamination by faeces, research was conducted on the presence of human faeces in urine samples. Cross-contamination was found in 22% of the samples taken from urine collection tanks. Factors that affected the persistence of microorganisms in source-separated human urine were also examined. These included temperature, pH, dilution and presence of ammonia. By using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA), the risks for bacterial, protozoan and viral infections related to handling and reuse of urine were calculated. Guidelines are provided on how to store (temperature and storage time) source-separated urine for reuse as fertilizer on particular crops.

TitleEvaluation of microbial health risks associated with the reuse of source-separated human urine
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication2001
AuthorsHoglund, C.
Paginationvii, 78 p. : 15 fig. 9 tab.
Date Published2001-01-01
PublisherRoyal Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology
Place PublishedStockholm, Sweden
ISSN Number9172830395
Keywordscrop production, faecal pollutants, guidelines, health hazards, microbiological analysis, microbiological quality, research, sdihyg, sdisan, urine, water reuse
Abstract

This thesis examines the health risks of reusing urine from urine-separating (or urine-diverting) toilets both in developed countries (with a focus on Sweden) and in developing countries. Since the risk for transmission of disease when handling and reusing the urine is largely dependent on cross-contamination by faeces, research was conducted on the presence of human faeces in urine samples. Cross-contamination was found in 22% of the samples taken from urine collection tanks. Factors that affected the persistence of microorganisms in source-separated human urine were also examined. These included temperature, pH, dilution and presence of ammonia. By using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA), the risks for bacterial, protozoan and viral infections related to handling and reuse of urine were calculated. Guidelines are provided on how to store (temperature and storage time) source-separated urine for reuse as fertilizer on particular crops.

NotesThesis. - References: p. 65-78
Custom 1303, 351.0

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